An ezine for students and teachers of
American Sign Language.

spacer.gif (42 bytes) spacer.gif (42 bytes) Volume 1, Issue 28   

 November, 2005   

spacer.gif (42 bytes)

spacer.gif (42 bytes)

Hello ASL Heroes!

I just received a new limited edition print from acclaimed Deaf Artist Phillip Deck. It's a really awesome example of what he calls "Digital Landscaping for the Tranquil Mind."  I was going to put it in my office, but Belinda, (my wife), claimed it for the house.  It will certainly make a nice addition to our living room.

Why am I telling you this?  Because you can download dozens of Phillip's digital landscape masterpieces for your computer screen background from his website: for free!  Check it out, you'll be glad you did.

Summer Immersion:

I've received quite a few emails wanting to know if I was hosting an immersion next summer and if anybody could participate.  My response is, "Yes and no."  Yes, Sacramento State will host an immersion, but you need to have taken a couple of ASL classes or at least have basic conversational fluency.  Here are the details for those of you who are interested:

ASL Immersion “Boot-camp” Summer 2006
California State University, Sacramento

A one-month online pre-study program followed by an intense two-week no-voice residency including morning-to-night instruction (9-hours daily) scheduled to be taught by three Deaf instructors.
Upon successful completion, students will receive 8 units of regionally accredited upper-division college credit.
Online (distance education) pre-study program: July 1, 2006, to August 4, 2006. In-person Residency: August 7, 2006, – August 18, 2006. 
Prerequisite: Students must have basic conversational signing ability equivalent to two-semesters of ASL classes.
Tuition: $1400
-  Signing Naturally Level 2 Student DVD and Workbook Price: $69.95 + S&H
-  Signing Naturally Level 3 Student DVD and Workbook Price: $79.95 + S&H
-  ASLU Vocabulary Development Disk $19.95 + S&H
Application fee: $50 (nonrefundable) Applications received by June 16, 2006, will have the application fee applied towards the program cost.
Applications received after June 16, 2006, will not have the application fee applied towards the program cost.
  Note: Credits earned in this program count toward Sacramento State's ASL certificate program. Course numbers:  EDS 152 and EDS 153.
For questions regarding registration, payment, housing, or program location, contact: Lisa-Marie Pacheco, Program Coordinator, at (916) 278-4813 or email at: 
For questions regarding course content, student readiness, instructor qualifications, or teaching methodology, contact Dr. Bill Vicars, Program Director, at

ASL Instructor Salaries

Someone recently asked me, "How much does a College ASL instructor make per hour?" The answer is "it depends." Annual pay for college instructors varies widely.  Some earn in the 20K range while others earn in the 90K range.  It depends on where you live, how many years you've been teaching, how high of a degree you have, whether you teach extra classes, and how good you are at salary negotiation. For discussion sake, let's pick somewhere in the middle and come up with an annual salary of $50,000. This might be for someone who has a masters degree, has been teaching for seven years at a reasonably prestigious institution that offers bachelors degrees in a state with a relatively high cost of living.
That amount would likely be based on teaching two semesters a year at a course load of 12 units per semester. Typically that would entail preparing, teaching, and grading from 3 to 5 classes per week, attending one or two meetings per week, and putting in 3 or so office hours per week.  Those activities take place 32 weeks out of the year.  The more you prepare for each class, the less you makes per hour.  Also, the fewer "dependent" students you have, the more you make per hour.  ("Dependent" students are those that depend on you to do for them things that other students do on their own.  For example, "read the syllabus".  A dependent student will email you half way through the semester to ask about the makeup policy.  An independent student will read the syllabus on his own and see the policy for himself.)
Let's do some "estimates" just for fun: Time per week:
12.0 hours: Teaching
01.4 hours: Setting up and cleaning up classroom

03.0 hours: Office hours (helping students)

04.0 hours: Grading Papers / recording grades / reporting grades

00.1 hours: Retention / Tenure / Promotion record keeping

02.0 hours: Public relations (taking time to chat with coworkers)

03.0 hours: Processing and responding to work email (unless you are an email junkie)
04.0 hours: Preparing lessons (depends on if you are new or have been teaching for a while)

00.5 hours: Attending staff meetings (varies widely)
Total:  30 hours per week

Then we figure 32 weeks times 30 hours per week--which equals 960 hours per year.
$50,000.00 divided by 960 hours equals $52.08 an hour. 
So, it would not be far-fetched to suggest that if you were to gain employment as a college ASL instructor you might find yourself putting in 30 hours a week, 32 weeks a year, at $52 an hour.  If you teach extra classes during summers and interim sessions you could supplement this amount substantially.
Remember, that is just one scenario and it varies a great deal from region to region and from teacher to teacher.
Cordially,  Dr. Bill Vicars

In a message dated 10/3/2005 6:42:46 A.M. Pacific Daylight Time, romulin101@    .com writes:
I saw somewhere that the sign for "would" is a "W" at the chin (palm towards the face) pulled back an inch or two then changed to a "D." Any comments on that? ( I don't see a "would" signing in the ASLU Dictionary section. However, I was thinking that if we can sign "Should" [by signing "have to" twice], then we should be able to sign "would." But what do I know, right?)
Dear Student,
The sign you describe is used in Signed English.  It is not used for conversational ASL.
In ASL, the concept of "would" is often expressed indirectly or you choose a sign that expresses the intended meaning. For example suppose you wanted to say:
"I would like to see that." 
You would sign: 
"I WANT SEE THAT" or perhaps "FUTURE I LIKE SEE THAT." "I would like you to come" = "I WANT YOU COME" "I wouldn't know" =  "I DON'T-KNOW" "I wouldn't mind if you..." = "I DON'T-MIND ..."
"I would never go there" = "I WON'T GO (strong negative head shake)" or "I FUTURE NEVER GO."
"Who would like one?" / "I would!"  =  "WHO WANT?" / "raised hand"

In a message dated 10/3/2005 6:42:46 A.M. Pacific Daylight Time, a student asks:
If you don't sign "are" in ASL, how would one ask "How are you?" Would it be a HOW + FEEL and index finger towards the person, or is there another way?
To sign "How are you?" you use the signs, "HOW YOU?" If you sign "HOW FEEL YOU?" that would be interpreted as "How are you feeling?"

In a message dated 10/3/2005 10:23:27 A.M. Pacific Daylight Time, writes:
Do you have any suggestions for learning directions in ASL?  I am a beginning ASL student (very old one) and I am having difficulty with directions.  I keep rewinding the "Signing Naturally" video that comes with our workbook, but to no avail.  We have a large class and I cannot slow down the whole group because of my slowness.  Any advice would be greatly appreciated.  Thanks for taking the time to help so many of us...  Maureen Jacobsen
Maureen, Let me tell you this:  You are not alone.  I get emails from all over the world from students with the same frustration.  Your best bet would be to write on a corner of the board...Tutor wanted, contact Maureen Jacobsen at (your email).
Or you might write:  Would one of you youngsters be willing to help out an old woman? I need a study partner who understands this "direction" stuff....
Or you might simply pick a time that you think will work for lots of people and set up a study group.  Your library likely has rooms available to reserve for this purpose.  Then, when you get the tutor, ask her to sit by your side and show you how to do the directions.  Seeing the directions from someone sitting by your side is much easier than someone sitting in front of you.  Then later you can have the person sit in front of you and try it that way.  You might be able to sit at the front of the classroom off to the side where you could pivot your chair or desk so that you are facing almost the same direction as your instructor.  Then follow his movements that way. Bill

In a message dated 10/3/2005 12:37:58 A.M. Pacific Daylight Time, a mother writes:

I found your website and have been using it as a reference to teach my
infant daughter sign language. So far it's been a success! However, I
cannot find a reference on how to sign the word "tickle". I have not been
able to find it on your site or on other internet sites. Can you please
help? My daughter loves to be tickled and I want to show her how to ask me
to tickle her. She only knows to sign "more" after I already tickle her.

Thank you so much for your time! Any help or suggestion would be much


There is no widely established sign for "tickle."
Two signs I'd be willing to support are:
1. Bending and unbending an index finger near the armpit
2. Holding both hands out in front of you and wiggling your slightly bent fingers as if tickling someone's ribs.
Dr. Bill

In a message dated 10/2/2005 3:59:41 PM Pacific Daylight Time, writes:

Hi Dr. Vicars. I am using your site and I have a quick question. I understand the signs you show for "how" but I found on another site to sign this way:

One Y handshape twists back and forth against the other Y handshape to represent the concept of asking how to take something apart.

Is this just another alternative way or is one way more accepted than the other?

Thanks so much. I am really enjoying learning ASL from you.
--Sarah Smith

"Y" handshapes huh? I'd like to see that sign for myself.
If you send me a link, I'd be happy to comment on the sign.

In a message dated 10/2/2005 4:56:26 PM Pacific Daylight Time, writes:

That is not the exact link, but if you go there and then click on the H in the directory at the bottom, you can find "how." Sorry it's not direct.
--Sarah Smith

Oh gee. No. That is at best a regional variation.
Go to your local bookstore or library and check out or flip through an armload of nationally published ASL dictionaries. I'll bet you won't find that "y" variation of HOW in any of the dictionaries.  Instead you will see "cupped" hands.

In a message dated 9/26/2005 4:32:47 A.M. Pacific Daylight Time, a student writes:
Dr. V:
I’ve noticed a tendency on the East Coast to use the sign for "favorite" to mean "prefer," depending on the context.  Is this a regionalism? One more question.  Is it an acceptable to personalize the use of a sign or signs (sort of like an accent), as long as it is understandable?  Just wondering.
Thanks again,
________ (name on file)

Dear Student, The sign FAVORITE is commonly used to mean prefer.  Not just in the east, but wherever ASL is used.  It is also used to mean "favor." As in "you-MIND FAVOR FOR ME?"  (Would you mind doing me a favor?).  It could even mean "type/preference" in a sentence such as:  "She's not my type." ("I NOT FAVOR HER" or "GIRL SAME HER I DON'T-LIKE I"). Certainly people do sign with their own little accents.  Just as in the Hearing world this is only a problem when the accent becomes so strong as to interfere with communication or annoy the listener.
However, there is a difference between an "accent" and "sloppy signing."  There is also a difference between an accent and inaccurate signing.  For example, suppose I move to Sacramento from Utah.  I might persist in signing "COMPUTER" on my wrist instead of on my forehead.  That would be a type of accent.  It is not a "wrong" sign.  I'm just "pronouncing" (articulating) the sign in a way they do "back home" but not in Sacramento.  Or if I moved from New York to California I might tend to sign faster than many of the locals. That would also be considered an accent. Cordially, Dr. V

In a message dated 9/29/2005 3:46:19 AM Pacific Daylight Time, writes:

Can u please tell me the difference between the signs I & J.
Thanking you,
--Maya Srinivas
They use the same handshape.
The difference is the "J" draws a "j" shape in the air.
The "i" has no movement.

In a message dated 9/30/2005 10:36:03 A.M. Pacific Daylight Time, writes:
I have some questions about your ASL program online...I have a mum here who's 15 year old son has recenly been diagnosed with a hearing impairment that will gradually decline...the audiologist says he should be completely deaf by 25. 

So she wanted to get a head start for her family and do some  sort of family ASL class to learn basics...but aparently there are few
resources for that here in Edmonton...I am still learning about that I was wondering if you have any ability to do an "internet
class" with this family from here...I know that you do them with HS in other states...but I am not sure what you provide for individuals, out of state (country)...there could potentially be a lot of business for you here...
Chandra, Students are welcome and encouraged to study ASL from for free. The lessons are all free. The links to the vocabulary are all free.  There is a downloadable workbook for free. The family you mentioned can study and make progress without having to pay anything.
Cordially, Bill p.s.  Why don't YOU set up an ASL class and earn a bit of pocket change. You are one of the best teachers I've ever seen.  Feel free to use my curriculum (see my permission page at:  If you do it right within a brief time you could be earning $600 to $900 (or more) a month teaching just a few hours a week.  (30 students times $40 is $1,200.00 --sweet.)  I used to do that when I was your age.

In a message dated 10/1/2005 6:54:48 P.M. Pacific Daylight Time, Travis writes:
When you say "make money" in English it of course means "Earn money." Can you do the same thing in ASL? And how could you sign "lets make money"?
You'd sign:
Note: The sign "EARN" is loosely based on "COLLECT" and is not a direct interpretation of the English word "earn." The sign "EARN" can actually be inflected to mean "pulling in" money by doing the sign twice and using a smaller, quicker movement.
Dr. Bill

In a message dated 10/1/2005 12:20:18 P.M. Pacific Daylight Time, writes:
Dear Bill,
This request may be a bit strange but roll with it please. I am an emergency medical tech. on a local ambulance and I need your advice and any education packets you could suggest. In a meeting the possible need for starting to have a spanish cheat sheet in the ambulance would be a good idea since an area influx. I being the outspoken one asked why don't we have anything for the hard of hearing or deaf.  My daughter is in a school with at least two children in her class that sign (they're best friends). She asked me one day how would we talk to them and not make them scared if we had to pick them up. I told her that mommy can sign and that's why I taught her, so she could have access to another wonderful world and not exclude others. Being the lovable but lippy ten year old that she is asked me "isn't that what the ems service is doing, not giving access and a way to let them know not to be scared?"  Needless to say I mentioned it to my director and she said yes, that would b!
e great! She said she had never thought of it.   This is turning out to be longer than you care to read, sorry. I need some help finding literature because I'm not the best signer in the world, but trying to still learn. Please e-mail and let me know what you think. I found your web site and will visit it often. 
Thanks, Ann S.
Ann, Sounds like a wonderful idea to me too.  I've seen some medical signing sites and products out there, so I'll post your email so those of my readers who are into this topic can contact you. Brainstorming:
Mini-white board with markers.  Patients who can't talk might be able to write a message.  And you might be able to write to them. Not all deaf are literate enough to converse via written English, but many are, so it is worth looking into. A picture board or book might also be effective. This would consist of very obvious graphics depicting various procedures, situations, or places.  This would work with both Spanish and Deaf people.
A fingerspelling sheet might be helpful.
A list of local interpreters for the deaf and/or local interpreting agencies.
There is a glove-based device out there (or in development) that voices what people fingerspell.  The glove could be placed onto the deaf person's hand and he or she could spell and you'd "hear" the comment through a speaker. There is a service out there that provides video interpreting (via a "web cam" and a monitor) for hospital emergency rooms. Phrases for such a cheat sheet might include: "YOU WANT INTERPRETER?"
"YOU A-L-L-E-R-G-I-C (spell "allergic" and/or sign OPPOSITE while mouthing the word "allergic") MEDICINE?"
I'm sure you can think of dozens more. Best wishes in your endeavor. Cordially,
Dr. Bill Vicars  
In a message dated 9/3/2005 5:54:16 PM Pacific Daylight Time, writes:
Concerning Curly Judy's concern that there's not a fast way to handwrite ASL, as an English teacher using ASL to facilitate English learning in Monterrey, Mexico, I have been developing a neo-hieroglific fastsketching technique, that might even eventuallly be useful to complete the four language tasks in ASL for any users of ASL (reading, witing, "listening" with the eyes, and "speaking" with the hands) I also champion the non-deaf usage of ASL in learning many things, including helping my young emergingly bi-lingual children to communicate sooner with less confusion and disruption. What do you think?
Mark, (Susy?) Yes, certainly, ASL is great for non-deaf as well as deaf. I think that systems for writing ASL will have a hard time catching on due to "diglossia."   Diglossia is "a sociolinguistic phenomenon in which complementary social functions are distributed between a prestigious or formal variety and a common or colloquial variety of a language, as in Greek, Tamil, or Scottish English." (   It comes down to return on investment (ROI).  Members of the Deaf Community and ASL students are unlikely to invest the time necessary to learn a "new" or "foreign (to them)" system of transcription when they already know how to write English.  The fact that the new system might be more effective is not sufficient incentive for them to invest the (perceived) substantial amount of time required to master the new system.    Additionally, video recording and playback is becoming increasingly easy and affordable.  Many people now have video recorders built into their pocket cameras and phones.  It will get to the point where students will simply videotape their instructors and play it back at home.

On the other hand, perhaps your system will catch on and be of use.  The future often brings needs and paths of progress that are beyond the scope of our present imaginations. 
Good luck in your endeavors Cordially, Dr. Bill
In a message dated 9/17/2005 10:31:21 AM Pacific Daylight Time, writes:
Dear Bill,   I have a big question for you!   One of the most frustrating things I have come across in interpreting to the Deaf is being unable to receive the signs! My husband who has never taken classes can read the signs from the Deaf but can't sign. I am the opposite! Can you suggest anything that would help?   It gets very frustrating not to mention "embarassing" to ask them to repeat again and again. Many of our Deaf don't speak or make lip movements at all so I can't try to "lipread" what they are signing. Frank, who has all the patience in the world with me (God bless his heart), has a real kick out of me, because for the longest time, I would nod at anything he said, pretending I had understood. Many years ago, he asked me a question, it was not a yes/no question. Here I am nodding with a broad smile on my face as I didnt want to look foolish. He looks at me and asks "Well, what's the answer?" I felt even more foolish then. He told me that he doesn't mind repeating (or should I say re-signing) until I understand. They have learned to sign slower for me, but I have to learn to receive the signs at a normall pace. Each of them is so kind and patient with me.   I printed many pages off the internet to help me with fingerspelling as I find certain letter patterns very tricky. But fingerspelling is not my biggest problem. RECEIVING the signs is my problem and I don't know if there is anything on the web that might help me. Plus, I sign LEFT. So practising in front of a mirror would not show me the same thing as someone who signs RIGHT.   What's the best way to learn to READ signs? Can you please help me because after all these years, (I started to learn in 1990) I still can't master this.   Cydrina   P.S. As for the part when my son informed me that Marsha's mom was Deaf, it was what many call "a picture moment", you had to be there to see the look on my face. Actually, I wish I had seen it myself!!!   Cydrina's Early Development Centre
Your Childcare and Learning Centre
for preschoolers.
Cydrina, Visit your local library and see if they have any ASL videos.  You can watch ASL videos in your spare time to increase your receptive ability.  If you can't find any at your library, try asking your librarian if she can do interlibrary loan and get you some.  If you have the money, you might want to order ASL videos (from or elsewhere) and watch ASL stories until you can understand what is happening.  You might consider my Unit 1 through Unit 9 CDs.  I sat in front of my camcorder and signed thousands of words and sentences. 
Go to as many Deaf/ASL socials as you can.
It is literally a matter of exposing your brain to enough sign for it to quickly and easily translate what it is seeing. Bill  

In a message dated 10/1/2005 4:21:02 A.M. Pacific Daylight Time, writes:
Hello Bill,
I would just like to ask your permission to print your 'thank you' photograph (featured on your website) in our Harvest Display Poster??? If you want to know more about the church please check us out on We use BSL of course, but thank you is the same. THANK YOU Kim Sandy PS Is the photograph you? PPS I am hearing but used to have to make all the phone calls for my mum and dad (deaf) so I too now hate the phone with a passion!!!!  Email is so much more relaxed!
Kim, If the photo is of a bald guy with a mandrake-style beard--yah, it's me. Feel free to use it or the graphic drawing in your newsletter. Cordially, Bill

In a message dated 10/7/2005 5:57:36 A.M. Pacific Daylight Time, micah_jayachandran@_____ writes:
Hi, Bill
My name is Micah Jayachandran. I recently moved to America from India with my twin, Haze, who is deaf. In our country, we were the lowest caste (I know the caste system has supposedly been abolished, but, trust me, if you're one of the untouchables everyone will still remind you) and for us it's near impossible to
get education in the first place: for someone with a disability it is really impossible. Education for the handicapped in India is sparse as it is, and only the richest can afford it decently. Most people, growing up, told me that I'd be better off if I just left my little sister to die (we don't have parents) instead of trying to help her find a way to get by.

Now that we are in America, maybe she can have the opportunity to learn sign language and be part of a real community rather than treated as subhuman. From what I understand, being deaf, here, can be an identity, something that makes you part of a community, rather than a handicap.

Haze lipreads very well and can verbalize adequately but English isn't even our first language, and it's difficult for her, often, to communicate with hearing people, and frustrating. I think it would be wonderful for her to learn sign language and meet other Deaf people, but we're very poor and I don't know where to go where she can learn. We live in Chicago right now - I was wondering if you knew of any good places in
Chicago to learn sign language? Any help would be appreciated.

Thank you,
Micah Jayachandran
Micah, My first and strongest suggestion would be for you to contact the Illinois School for the Deaf.  They are located in Jacksonville.  You can call them at (217) 479-4200
or visit them at Illinois School for the Deaf 125 Webster Avenue Jacksonville, Illinois 62650
If I were you I'd immediately send an email to their admissions office at and ask about admissions requirements.  You didn't mention how old your sister, Haze, is. If she is younger than 21 there is a strong chance that she could attend the Deaf School.  For general information, you can email or visit their website at: Depending on what sort of documents she signed when she came into the country, her age, and her legal status, Haze may qualify for services from the Department of Rehabilitation Services.  If she qualifies the Department may assign her a Rehabilitation Counselor for the Deaf (RCD).  This counselor could help her receive job-related training and assistance. You will find contact information and an online referral form at their website: I also recommend you get in touch with the Illinois Association of the Deaf.  Visit their website at for more information.  Also send a letter to their president at and request more information and guidance. Email me back after you have checked into these things and let me know how it is going. Best wishes to you and Haze.
Cordially, Dr. Bill Vicars
In a message dated 10/18/2005 2:53:07 P.M. Pacific Daylight Time, writes:
Hi Dr. Vicars! I love your Pah newsletter and I do the fingerspell program [at] everyday. By the way is the [speed selection at labeled as] "deaf" really the speed deaf [people] normally use [while] fingerspelling? It looks slower [on the practice site] than [what] I see in public. Yet, I'm not ready to go faster yet either. But I'm curious to know if that is so. I jumped over to the newsletter part [of your website] just to see what's happening with you, and found Issue 27 [is] out. I never was sent mine this time. I don't want to be off your list. Please send it to me. I recopy all the Pah's and read them over many times for enjoyment and learning experience. Thanks for your hard work sharing your skills and presenting this program to us all as you do. It sure has been a joy to my life. Linda.
Here was my reply:

Linda, Fear not true believer!  The ASLpah newsletter has yet to be sent out for the month of October.
Clever creature that you managed to serendipitously stumble upon the link to issue 27.
It is true that I normally email the newsletter first and post it second.  This time I was experimenting with possibly getting the newsletter out BEFORE the last day of the month.  Luckily I came to my senses and realized such an occurrence may result in untold disastrous results, heart attacks, and plunging of the stock market. So, it will go out to the masses sometime before all hallows eve but not too far in advance because that would truly be scary.
Now, on to your other question: Fingerspelling speed.
I reckon we Deaf spell between five and seven letters per second.  In the real world we often, to spell all the letters in a given word.  Heh.  Or we "slur the letters together."  The first time a word is spelled in a conversation it tends to be much more "clear" than subsequent spellings. By the end of the conversation we are basically mumbling it. (Check out "lexicalization" in the Lifeprint Library.) Take care. Cordially, Dr. Bill
In a message dated 11/10/2005 7:22:11 AM Pacific Standard Time, writes:
Hi, Dr. Bill; I enjoy your website so much! It is really a public service, thank you!  I was wondering if you could help me, I've looked many places and can't find the signs for "papaya" and "spinach".  I am a speech therapist teaching teen moms how to sign with their babies through Prevent Child Abuse New Jersey.  I would really appreciate your assistance. Thanks in advance Jennifer Otero
There are no widespread, commonly accepted signs for papaya or spinach.
These concepts would generally be spelled out.
BUT, I will ask around and see what I can find.

Subject: Re: text books for ASL

An ASL instructor writes:
What is your favorite Deaf culture book to recommend to students? I have so many (thanks to a generous budget) but there must be ONE that has little of everything. With my 40 years of marriage (my ticket to the Deaf community) I share many personal experiences more time consuming addition to my class time.

My favorite is the latest edition of, "For Hearing People Only." Sure, there are quite a few more "scholarly" Deaf Culture books, but for the typical student who needs an introduction to the Deaf World --For Hearing People Only works really well.

Hi Bill,

My Kirtland classes are into their 4th week now and it is going smoothly if not so fast that I'm not sure how we will ever finish the lessons.

My question as to your favorite Deaf culture book was answered and accepted with a grin. I have both issues of the FHPO books... the latest one was hand delivered to me (and autographed) by Moore's production manager, Charles Bancroft. He is the son of dear friends of ours who once spent many weekends snowmobiling with us. He was home for our own Mich. School for the Deaf's 150 year celebration and sold me a copy at discount. I LOVE the book.

I also introduced my students to your web site and showed in class a few examples of you signing. I am blessed to be in a media enabled class room this semester and love the variety and quality of your lessons and quizzes and the ease in which you make it all available. BUT OHHH SO MUCH EFFORT on your part! Bless you for this from me and the countless others who take advantage of the offerings without remembering their manners.
Brenda Dawe
(Kirtland CC instructor, NAD IV 'terp, Spouse of Deaf for 41 years)

To unsubscribe, visit: and click on unsubscribe.


© Lifeprint Institute