ASLpah.com | Volume 1, Issue
22, May 2005 | William G. Vicars Ed.D., Editor
Hello ASL Heroes!
From the Desk of:
I'm excited for summer. I can really use the time to work on my
website and focus on a few of my areas of interest. Here in California there
have been major changes in education funding. A lot of
"educators" have really put up a fuss regarding the various reforms
that have proposed. From what I understand, (according to State
Government websites), government spending (investment) in California’s
at record levels. Even so, to save money Sac State has
increased my teaching load by adding more students to each of my classes.
Sure, I'd rather have an easier teaching load, but quite honestly I don't
mind. I'd rather do a little more work than have to forever put up
with people who waste their days trying to talk their way out of debt
that they spent their way into.
Sometimes people ask me what are my areas of interest.
My emphasis is on distance education / technology-enhanced delivery of ASL
Instruction, ASL excursion-based language acquisition (immersion trips to
amusement parks), and extended-Immersion
based instruction (hybrid learning programs: intense one or two-week residencies
combined with online learning).
Take care folks,
In a message dated 5/3/2005 4:35:51 PM Pacific Daylight Time,
My name is Tiffany R_____ and I was in your ASL 4 class. I am
now taking Deaf culture and I did a paper on baby signing and I have
do a presentation about it and I was wondering your thoughts on it.
I researched baby signing because it is a growing trend right now
hearing parents to sign to hearing babies to accelerate
speech. My thoughts were mixed about the subject. I think that it
works very well, but I can't help feeling that parents are abusing
feel that in a sense they are stealing ASL from the deaf community
use certain words and gestures. I think that they are using ASL as a
to help them, but not as a real language because most parents aren't
learning the whole language. I think that it is wrong to use ASL
then abandon ASL once the child starts communicating through speech.
I also feel that it is wrong to use ASL with hearing children to
communication while many people still refuse to use ASL with deaf
Also there is also the home signing approach. I think is stupid to
your own signs when there is ASL available.
I was wondering if you agreed with me and/or your thoughts on the
I would appreciate it if you would e-mail me back a short response
your thoughts on baby signing.
I tend to be more liberal than many ASL teachers. I think it is
great that hearing parents are using ASL with their hearing
babies. It is creating a lot of awareness and goodwill. A percentage
of those "signing babies" will continue on to learn more and more sign
as they get older and may eventually become interpreters or advocates
for the Deaf.
I do know that there is a big concern on the part of many of my
colleagues regarding unqualified hearing instructors "cashing in" on the
baby signing boom. But personally, I'd rather there be a boom than a
bust. I think all this new attention is exciting and good for the
profession. It leads to discussions like this one.
I think that eventually the baby signing phenomenon will have a strong
beneficial impact on deaf children.
I agree that it is better to learn ASL rather than use invented "home signing."
In a message dated 3/9/2005 4:48:32 PM Pacific Standard Time,
I am a mother of three (15, 12, and 9) that I home school. We are
through your ASL 1 course together with the help of the video
CD's and your
book. We are enjoying it tremendously! We had attempted several
courses in the past, but I was never motivated enough to learn
Spanish to be
able to assist my kids when they hit a roadblock. <G> My oldest
brain damage at birth, and as a result has significant learning
disabilities, including memory deficits. While it is still a
think the visual and kinesthetic components of signing making it
him than other languages. We had taken an introduction to sign
course a couple of years ago together, and then I took a couple
classes and a signing for worship class through my church's
Ministry. Our church has a small but active Deaf Ministry, and
there is also
a monthly silent dinner at an area mall, so we are blessed with
opportunities to form friendships within the Deaf community. I
childbirth educator and I also recently had a Deaf couple
Puerto Rico come through my class along with their trilingual
It was so nice to be able to communicate directly with the
couple at least
on a limited basis. It has also made me angry to learn how the
needs of the
Deaf are often not met despite legal obligations to do so. This
mother has not been provided an interpreter for any of her
appointments. How sad!
Wow...that is quite a story.
You keep the faith and hang in there!
A student writes:
how would u sign the verb, shower? Would it be the same as the
noun? is shower a noun-verb pair?
I could see how some people
might consider "shower" a noun verb pair.
When used in a sentence by a fluent ASL signer, "SHOWER" would be done
with a single movement.
"I NEED SHOWER-(single movement)." That would mean "take a shower" which
is an action.
If you signed "SHOWER-(double movement) LEAKING, I NEED F-I-X" it would
certainly be a noun.
This sign is flexible though. I wouldn't mark it wrong on a test
if one of my students did it either way.
In a message dated 3/4/2005 1:52:04 PM Pacific Standard Time,
hello dr. bill, i enjoy
very much. i think you are brave
to use the name 'dr. bill' reminds me of that cartoon...ohh noo
mr bill...[smile]. i am hard of hearing and mostly consider
myself Deaf. i was not allowed to learn sign as a kid. i was
about 23 maybe when i started to learn sign. no one in my family
signs though i really wish they would learn to because it is
much easier to communicate...i guess they just like yelling and
repeating things till they become totally frustrated. i have a
five year granddaughter who is learning signs in her
kindergarden class and also from me. it is so neat to see her
sign! and she's a natural little actress so sometimes her signs
are really dramatic and funny. when i started to learn sign and
expressed an interest in meeting other Deaf people the hearing
people who were in charge of the advocacy office for the deaf
said i was not 'deaf' enough and that none of the deaf people
would even want to talk to me!! i listened to that line of
reasoning a long time before i met some folks and found out the
advocate was full of it.
i lost my hearing due to a misdiagnosed mastoid infection when
i was six and also to chronic ear infections. i am training my
second hearing ear dog. thank you for [liferprint.com]. i use it to help
teach my grand daughter. she thinks it is pretty cool as well.
Thanks for sharing your story.
I'm glad my website has been useful to you. That is neat about your
Recently an event organizer contacted me and asked me to help provide
student volunteers to interpret for a "Senior Rally" co-sponsored by the
AARP at the California State Legislature.
Here is my response:
Just as your group is lobbying for affordable prescription drugs and
maintenance of healthcare programs--we of the Deaf Community are lobbying
for the advancement of interpreting services. One such advance is
recognition of interpreting as a professional career requiring appropriate
training and deserving appropriate pay.
Would you advocate that seniors routinely receive healthcare from unpaid
student volunteers? Why then use such an approach toward filling the
communication needs of Deaf people?
I encourage you to secure funding for qualified, professional interpreters.
I also encourage you to contact a professional interpreting agency for this
and all of your future interpreting needs.
One that I recommend is EATON INTERPRETING SERVICES, INC.
(A Privately-Owned Small Business Serving the Greater Sacramento Area and
Northern California) Contact Person: Kim Eaton, email: email@example.com
William Vicars, Ed.D.
Asst. Professor, American Sign Language
California State University, Sacramento
In a message dated 3/13/2005 7:36:30 PM Pacific Standard Time,
Couple of questions..... what does it mean when both "S"
hands are held out in front of shoulders, palms in, & then
move outward & change into open hands? 2nd one.....right
"A" hand, palm in, rubs left shoulder?
That first sign might be "odor emitted from underarms." Or it might be
"MANY" signed using an exaggerated movement.
That second sign is a toughie. It might be ambulance or maybe a
name sign. I don't see many "A" on the shoulder signs.
A student just mentioned that he heard ASL was quickly being replaced by
He wanted to do a research paper on that topic.
I thought it was an excellent topic and suggested some angles to consider:
Will deafness someday be cured?
Will ASL continue to be used in the future? If so, why?
A couple of possible (off-beat, but interesting) reasons:
ASL can be used to communicate with animals.
ASL can be used to communicate with babies.
So, even if doctor's cure deafness, ASL still has uses that can't be met be
traditional spoken languages and or cued speech systems.
I know of no research showing ASL being surpassed in new users by
Nor have I seen any indication of a growth in of Cued Speech with animals or by
Since you asked me, I'll give you my personal option that the idea of Cued
Speech replacing ASL is simply ridiculous.
In a message dated 3/31/2005 4:59:13 PM Pacific Standard Time,
Dear Dr. Vicars;
May I call you Bill? Anyway, I am Deaf and native ASL user, also a
teacher at NY State School f/t Deaf in Rome and an (evening) ASL
adjunct at Onondaga Community College in Syracuse. The college has
been expanding the online course program rapidly for the majority of
"commutering" students. My dept.chair has asked me to explore the
possiblity of developing an online course on ASL. I have problems
with this idea for a number of reasons...obviously one is ASL
itself is visually based......how can technology help remove this
such barrier and all that? After surfing in your ASL University
website briefly, you seem to be making it possible to do so. When
did you first begin offering this such online course? Any pluses
and minuses found in this new approach so far?? I am real curious
before taking a dive. Hey, is there any possibility for you to let
me take a peek at your online curriculum in order to get an idea of
what it might look like? Does it cover ASL I-IV?
Many thanks for your time, patience and understanding. Looking
forward to your answers, I am...
Please include both addresses above when replying, thank you!
Yes, call me Bill.
+ Strong receptive vocabulary development and receptive skills.
+ Asynchronous teaching/learning (teacher and student don't have to
be in the same place at the same time).
hmmm...I can see that answering your questions here would turn
into a dissertation
...oh wait, I DID one of those on this topic.
You can download a copy of my dissertation at:
There you will find in-depth answers to your questions.
After reading through it, if you have additional
feel free to email me.
My online curriculum currently consists of levels 1 and 2. You can
check out the prototype at Lifeprint.com. The official
college-credit version is hosted via a password protected Macromedia
I feel levels 3 and 4 should be either in-person or preferably
hybrid courses. I am currently directing a level 3 and 4
hybrid online/immersion program for Sac State (CSUS). The students
do much of the work online and then come to Sac State for two weeks
of boot-camp style ASL instruction and conversation (9 hours per
day) and live in the dorms. The 3 instructors are deaf.
Students must keep their voices off for two-weeks. They
receive 8 credit hours. I've got 13 students registered for
that program so far. :)
. I can accept a few more people
into that program.
William Vicars, Ed.D.
Department of Special Education, Rehabilitation, and School
6000 J St. - Eureka Hall, Room 308
Sacramento, CA 95819-6079
In a message dated 3/18/2005 9:00:10 AM Pacific Standard Time,
Do you recommend mirror practice? What suggestions do you have for
someone to improve their sign skills when they don't have anyone to
practice with. Thanks Jackee
While mirror practice is not as effective as one-on-one practice with a
living partner--it is still better than no practice at all. I
think it is
good to see how your hands are moving so you can compare your signs with
If you have no one to practice with, you will simply need to find ways
to make practicing alone meaningful to you.
For example, perhaps you have a favorite song, poem, or inspirational
message that you might want to translate into ASL. That way you will
enjoy the practice because it has meaning for you.
> In a message dated 3/18/2005 1:14:31 PM Pacific
> Standard Time,
> willowbard writes:
Vicars, I'm looking for suggestions/advice from anyone who has
useful ideas! I've been an interpreter and tutor for nearly 20
years, and have just begun (we've met for a total of two hours)
working with a person in his mid-twenties who is deaf. The parents
are hearing, mother speaks English as a 2nd language. Father says,
"I don't sign. Teach the kid to communicate." I was hired to teach
'sign language'. The deaf person seems eager to learn, can sign a
LITTLE. There is apparent D.D., or L.D., but it is VERY difficult
to tell how much (if any??) because of the lack of language. The
person tries to copy-sign and voices a lot. There is definitely
some hearing present, but not enough to understand words clearly.
The deaf person is "well-trained" or "well-disciplined", because
the father totally squashed any "acting-out" at an early age, and
so EVERYTHING I say, do, sign, show, tell, is met with a
super-agreeable smile and nod. I was told that tests from several
years ago place this person at about the age of 2 1/2 years old.
Some written letters are recognized, some ASL letters are, too.
Some pictures are met with an excited sign (airplane, cookie), but
no understanding of a red airplane being different from a blue
airplane. No ability to write, or even trace letters. No simple
math skills. Basically no ability to understand simple
instructions, although will DO anything I ask, in order to please
me. This person seems to have no sense of "self". I can't do what
has been done before, let them mimic whatever I sign, and call it
communication. I believe something wonderful can happen here, but I
don't want to waste this person's time. Do you, or does anyone,
have suggestions? Are there books? Anything? Thank you for your
time. Sincerely, L. Murphy.
> I received your email and the two books I recommend
> Knight, P., & Swanwick, R. (1999). The care and education of a deaf child a book for parents (Parents' and teachers' guides: Parents' and teachers' guides No. no. 4). Clevedon, England, Buffalo: Multilingual Matters.
> Schirmer, B. R. (1994). Language and literacy development in children who are deaf. New York, Toronto, New York: Merrill.
> Maxwell Macmillan Canada.
> Maxwell Macmillan International.
> --Bill V.
In a message dated 4/17/2005 10:46:27 A.M. Pacific Daylight Time,
Thank you for the information.
I hope I
didn't somehow offend you...You are usually quite chatty in your
responses to people, and, honestly, while my letter had to sound
stiff - no names, etc.- it was more an eruption of distress and fury
at the situation than a request for books to solve something that
can't be solved. Anyway, I didn't write to you in order to
take advantage of you, or "use" you for information. I only wrote
after meeting my client and seeing that so MUCH could have been
taught all those important years, but wasn't, because "We don't have
time". I spent days poring over every book I could find in the
library, searching the internet, talking with every teacher
and interpreter I know who might have given me any crumb of help --
and finally decided to come to you, thinking that you would
understand. I know "the drill", but I will NEVER understand
how people can do this to their own children. That's why I wrote to
you. I'm sorry if I was out of line, or somehow inappropriate.
Oh heavens no...you didn't offend me in any way. The shortness of
my earlier reply was only due to the fact that there are not enough
hours in the day. At times it literally becomes a matter of
choosing between sleep, eating, seeing my wife and kids, or
answering emails from people on the net. I figured a short response
would be better than no response. In your email you asked "are there
books?" So I responded by suggesting a couple of books that I felt
were appropriate. Much of the gist of your letter seems to ask,
"How it is that parents can choose to be so uninvolved with their
The fact is that life is just too busy for many people. Every minute
I spend typing emails on this computer is one less minute I can
spend helping my own children with their homework. So, occasionally
I end up, as I did with you earlier, giving a brief answer so I will
have enough time to do the important things in my life. As you know
or will know...it is a balancing act.
Even now I'm IM'ing (messaging) my wife who is in Sacramento while
I'm in Portland awaiting my flight back home after having given a
workshop to the NorthWest Association of ASL teachers.
Now, regarding your earlier letter--perhaps what you could really
benefit from is a discussion group where you could ask those same
questions and bounce your concerns off of a number of informed
individuals in a sharing, supportive environment.
You might consider joining an online discussion group. I looked
around for you and came across the ASCD group. That's American
Society for Children who are Deaf.
The web address is
I'm sure there
are others out there as well. Since you will likely be in this
business for a while, it would certainly be worth your time to find
one or two groups that meet your needs and to which you could share
your own reflections with others as well.
Thank you for
your reply. I do understand the terrible brevity of time...
My question, whether directed towards you, or the universe, is not
necessarily about how parents can be so busy, but how anyone who is
healthy, wealthy, well-educated, reasonably intelligent, etc., can
watch their own deaf child become an adult right in front of them,
wait a quarter of a century, then say, "Well, I guess I'll allow my
child to learn language, as long as the government pays for it, but
don't get me involved, because I'm not interested."
It's not 'time', or lack of it, that I find so abhorrent in this and
similar situations. It is being told that the father wants the child
to learn language "Because I'm tired of saying 'Take out the
garbage' or 'Get me some coffee' and not being understood". This
human being is put into my hands to learn language so that the
father can have a better servant. There is not one word expressed
about the wants or needs or rights of this (deaf) PERSON.
What kind of a social system do we live under, that this is even
legal? Aren't those who can't speak for themselves supposed to be
protected from exploitation and evil? I'm sorry. This stuff really
gets to me. Thank you again for your reply. I will get in
touch with the group you mentioned, and go from there. By the way,
oddly enough, I live in Portland. Small world, hmmm... I hope you
have a safe trip home. Hug your family :) Thanks again.
In a message dated 3/22/2005 10:42:56 AM Pacific Standard Time,
Hi Dr. Vicars,
I have taken ASL 1 & 2 through a community
college and very interested in teaching signs to my baby. I have
done some research online about people who teach I sometimes see
"Certified" and have looked at a few programs that certify
teachers. Is teaching signs to babies regulated and what makes
being certified better than buying a book and teaching my baby
myself or for that matter other peoples babies? Curious - Sheila
Great question! Being certified simply means that "someone" said that
"someone" else has achieved "some" level of proficiency.
So, is that better than NO certification? I reckon that it is better,
yes, but it doesn't necessarily mean you are getting a great teacher.
Maybe you are only getting a poor teacher who barely passed his or her
Many excellent teachers have no certification.
Teaching signs to parents of babies for pay is generally not regulated.
It doesn't fall under most occupational licensing programs because the
teachers are not claiming to prepare anyone for employment.
It is indeed better to have a live instructor if you have the time and
But "how much" better depends on the skills of the individual
In a message dated 3/23/2005 9:16:36 AM Pacific Standard Time,
I have an almost 3 year old who is
having trouble speaking. We do not believe that she will not be
a speaking child, but she is having trouble right now with
something called Apraxia. Anyhow, we've decided to teach her
some sign language to allow her to communicate with more than a
one word sentence (and not one that is clear at that). We have
been directed to your website which has been helpful in getting
started with some basic signs. We come from the south and have
our children use manners in everything that they do -- including
saying 'Yes ma'am' and 'yes sir'. We've taught all of our
children these words at a very young age. Since my child
understands that she is to say this -- but can't say it
correctly so that others understand, we would like to give her
the sign for 'ma'am' and 'sir'. However, I am unable to locate
the signs for these words. Are there signs for these words or
are manners just simply implied when saying 'yes' and 'no'? If
you can help me with this, it would be greatly appreciated.
Thank you so very much.
There are no well-established ASL signs for "ma'am" or "sir."
Politeness and manners in ASL are expressed via "non-manual" markers
(facial expression, body posture, head-tilt) and inflection (size,
speed, movement path) of the sign.
In your circumstance I would recommend you ask a local Deaf person to
assign name signs to your family members and then you could teach your
child to sign "yes ____" --using the name sign.
Or you could use the signs "MOM" and "DAD" for "ma'am" and "sir"
for when she is talking to you and her father.
One more approach might be to sign "YES WOMAN" and "YES MAN" using the
"MOM-FINE" and the "DAD-FINE" versions of woman and man.
However, I again wish to point out that this is not standard in the Deaf
In a message dated 4/2/2005 6:08:44 PM Pacific Standard Time,
My name is Roshonya Cordero. I'm currently a senior at a magnet
school for education. After high school, I plan to major in Deaf
edcuation.As a result, decided to get ahead start and learn sign
language. I recently bought a set of Cds entitled Instant
Immersion American Sign Language. I was working on the signs for
diffent family members and when was practicing aunt, I noticed
it was differnt from the sign I learned for your site. I would
like to know what the difference is and which is more proper.
The sign for aunt on my cd is the right hand in an "A" postion
where the thumb traces the jawline. Thank you very much for your
The sign for Aunt can either bounce or twist an "A" handshape off to the
side of the cheek.
If you "slide the thumb down the jawline you are doing the sign for
Visit your library and check out a few ASL dictionaries...you'll see
what I mean.
In a message dated 4/12/2005 9:24:13 AM Pacific Daylight Time,
HELLO MY NAME IS DEBRA AND I HAD A
COUPLE OF QUESTIONS. I KNOW THAT YOU HAVE A LOT OF THINGS
YOU HAVE TO DO SO I'LL TRY TO BE SHORT. I REALLY WANT TO
BECOME A ASL TEACHER AND WANTED TO KNOW HOW TO GO ABOUT
DOING SO AND IF I CAN DO IT ON LINE? I REALLY HOPE YOU CAN
HELP ME. THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR YOU TIME. DEBRA:):):)
Online study can help
Your library can help
In-person ASL courses can be a huge help.
You need to get involved with the deaf community.
You should not teach ASL until you have invested considerable time
interacting with a variety Deaf people.
Eventually, you may want to become certified. I recommend you check
In a message dated 4/11/2005 7:58:03 PM Pacific Daylight Time,
The sign for "cereal" in Lesson 7, you demonstrate using the
index finger to x hand shape across the mouth a few times, but
the ASL browser from Michigan State University uses a gesture of
eating from a bowl.
Should I be concerned about the different variations?
-Gene Brotherton, Jr.
Port Orange, FL.
The answer is simple: I'm right and they are wrong. Heh. Just
Thanks for including the link. I took a look at it and the model is
doing an initialized "C" version of "soup." The "eating from a
bowl" sign can be modified to mean "soup"-("U" handshape), RICE-("R"
handshape), or --less common-- CEREAL-("C"handshape).
You can even modify "SOUP" to mean "SPOON" by sort of dropping the
"bowl" at the end of the sign and holding the "U" handshape up a
moment longer. You can modify SOUP to mean "eat soup" by using a
larger, slower movement.
You shouldn't be overly concerned about such variations. Only
dweebs, purists, ASL instructors, or um people from Florida give a fig about it. Skilled
Deaf signers will recognize both variations.
Obviously there are regional variations, but the initialized version
of "cereal" (eating from a bowl) with a "C" is not something that
I'd teach to one of my ASL classes.
Personally my main concern is if "cereal" is being eaten...did I get
an invite and can I have the prize from the box?
In a message dated 4/22/2005 3:49:37 PM Pacific Daylight Time,
Dear Dr. how are you-
is Endale Asefa from Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia. I am an MSc
student of Information Science. By now I am working on my thesis in
title"A Hypermedia Learning Tool for Ethiopian Sign Language". My
aim is to create a prototype of hypermedia learning software for
hearing people around health centers like hospitals. To do this I
need to identify users need by questionaires. This is mainly to
identify the specific signs of Ethiopian Sign Lnguage that deaf
people can use when served by hospitals. Note that the main aim of
this research is to minimise communication gap between hearing and
deaf people and helping the deaf in the mentioned area. Now my
question to you is can you send me or tell me a site to get an
already tested material (questionaire) that can help me in assesing
communication gap and user needs please? I am asking you this becuse
my advisor has told me that it is a must to have an already tested
material. If not I may not be allowed to do this research. For your
information there is no IT project regarding Ethiopian Sign Language
up to now. I am starting it and I do have great plan to continue
simillar researches on the area in the future. I hope you will help
me a lot. Thank you in advance
I recommend this book: Emmorey, K., Lane, H. L., Bellugi, U., & Klima, E. S.
(2000). The signs of language revisited an anthology to honor Ursula
Bellugi and Edward Klima. Mahwah, N.J Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
In it you will find various ASL research projects some including
examples of testing instruments designed to gather
Lexicostatistical data for signed languages.
Also, check out:
I asked a colleague the following question:
<<What education credential is necessary in California to teach in a
deaf/hard of hearing classroom in grades K-12?
Where in California would a person get that credential? (Which college
My colleague gave me the following information and I figured I'd pass
it along for those of you who are interested in this topic. Note:
While I believe this information to be accurate, you should always
verify details before making life-changing decisions.
<<To teach in D/HH programs, a
student must earn a Master's degree (it can be in Deaf Education,
but doesn't have to be, although if one does not hold a Master's in
Deaf Ed, you would likely be required to take extra coursework in
order to receive the credential) and complete additional coursework
towards earning the credential (which would be included in the
Master's coursework). There are several programs in Calif. that I
know of -- SFSU, SJSU, CSU-Fresno, CSUN, and one or both of the San
Diego colleges. Specific info on contacting the programs is in the
Amer. Annals of the Deaf April reference issue every year, along
with a listing of all the colleges in Calif (and the country/Canada)
that offer teacher training (and other types) programs. Once they
have completed the coursework, they may apply for a DHH credential,
which is split into two levels, the second of which is contingent on
work experience and (I think) a little more coursework.
I have heard good things about CSUN
and at least one of the San Diego programs, and I think Fresno is
________ (name on file)>>
Sac State may be
hiring an ASL Instructor to begin August 2006.
Here is an example of the
"hiring criteria (draft)"
1. Degree attained (Ph.D. preferred)
2. Teaching ability
3. Teaching Experience (3+
4. Experience/knowledge of
different ASL curricula
5. Experience/knowledge of
Deaf Culture and Community
6. Knowledge of and Experience
with ASL (including its linguistic structure and contrasts with
7. Experience with diversity
in student population
Current state of knowledge of ASL instruction and Deaf
In a message dated 5/8/2005 1:00:27 A.M. Pacific Daylight
Time, dijanajonjic@ writes:
I want ti say thank you for helping me to learn sign, I
am from Croatia and want to learn to speak sign, so that
I can communicate with other people, who is hard
So thank you again.
You are welcome.
American Sign Language University ™
Lifeprint.com © William Vicars