ASL University | Bookstore | Catalog | Dictionary | Lessons | Resources | Syllabi | Library | Volume 1, Issue 22, May 2005 | William G. Vicars Ed.D., Editor


Hello ASL Heroes!

From the Desk of:

I'm excited for summer.  I can really use the time to work on my website and focus on a few of my areas of interest. Here in California there have been major changes in education funding.  A lot of "educators" have really put up a fuss regarding the various reforms that have proposed.  From what I understand, (according to State Government websites), government spending (investment) in California’s schools is at record levels.  Even so, to save money Sac State has increased my teaching load by adding more students to each of my classes.  Sure, I'd rather have an easier teaching load, but quite honestly I don't mind.  I'd rather do a little more work than have to forever put up with people who waste their days trying to talk their way out of debt that they spent their way into.

Sometimes people ask me what are my areas of interest.  My emphasis is on distance education / technology-enhanced delivery of ASL Instruction, ASL excursion-based language acquisition (immersion trips to amusement parks), and extended-Immersion based instruction (hybrid learning programs: intense one or two-week residencies combined with online learning).
Take care folks,

In a message dated 5/3/2005 4:35:51 PM Pacific Daylight Time, writes:
Professor Vicars,
My name is Tiffany R_____ and I was in your ASL 4 class. I am now taking Deaf culture and I did a paper on baby signing and I have to also do a presentation about it and I was wondering your thoughts on it.
I researched baby signing because it is a growing trend right now for hearing parents to sign to hearing babies to accelerate communication before speech. My thoughts were mixed about the subject. I think that it probably
works very well, but I can't help feeling that parents are abusing ASL. I feel that in a sense they are stealing ASL from the deaf community only to use certain words and gestures. I think that they are using ASL as a tool to help them, but not as a real language because most parents aren't learning the whole language. I think that it is wrong to use ASL signs and then abandon ASL once the child starts communicating through speech.
I also feel that it is wrong to use ASL with hearing children to accelerate communication while many people still refuse to use ASL with deaf children.
Also there is also the home signing approach. I think is stupid to make up your own signs when there is ASL available.
I was wondering if you agreed with me and/or your thoughts on the subject. I would appreciate it if you would e-mail me back a short response about your thoughts on baby signing.
Thank You,
Tiffany R_______
Hello Tiffany,
I tend to be more liberal than many ASL teachers.  I think it is great that hearing parents are using ASL with their hearing babies.  It is creating a lot of awareness and goodwill.  A percentage of those "signing babies" will continue on to learn more and more sign as they get older and may eventually become interpreters or advocates for the Deaf.
I do know that there is a big concern on the part of many of my colleagues regarding unqualified hearing instructors "cashing in" on the baby signing boom.  But personally, I'd rather there be a boom than a bust. I think all this new attention is exciting and good for the profession.  It leads to discussions like this one.
I think that eventually the baby signing phenomenon will have a strong beneficial impact on deaf children.
I agree that it is better to learn ASL rather than use invented "home signing." 
Dr. Bill

In a message dated 3/9/2005 4:48:32 PM Pacific Standard Time, shuzoo@ writes:
I am a mother of three (15, 12, and 9) that I home school. We are working through your ASL 1 course together with the help of the video CD's and your book. We are enjoying it tremendously! We had attempted several Spanish courses in the past, but I was never motivated enough to learn Spanish to be able to assist my kids when they hit a roadblock. <G> My oldest suffered brain damage at birth, and as a result has significant learning disabilities, including memory deficits. While it is still a challenge, I think the visual and kinesthetic components of signing making it easier for him than other languages. We had taken an introduction to sign language course a couple of years ago together, and then I took a couple of basic classes and a signing for worship class through my church's School of Ministry. Our church has a small but active Deaf Ministry, and there is also a monthly silent dinner at an area mall, so we are blessed with
opportunities to form friendships within the Deaf community. I am a childbirth educator and I also recently had a Deaf couple originally from Puerto Rico come through my class along with their trilingual interpreter. It was so nice to be able to communicate directly with the couple at least on a limited basis. It has also made me angry to learn how the needs of the Deaf are often not met despite legal obligations to do so. This expectant mother has not been provided an interpreter for any of her prenatal appointments. How sad!
Wow...that is quite a story.
You keep the faith and hang in there!
--Dr. Bill

A student writes:
how would u sign the verb, shower? Would it be the same as the noun? is shower a noun-verb pair?
I could see how some people might consider "shower" a noun verb pair.
When used in a sentence by a fluent ASL signer, "SHOWER" would be done with a single movement.
"I NEED SHOWER-(single movement)." That would mean "take a shower" which is an action.
If you signed "SHOWER-(double movement) LEAKING, I NEED F-I-X" it would certainly be a noun.
This sign is flexible though.  I wouldn't mark it wrong on a test if one of my students did it either way.

In a message dated 3/4/2005 1:52:04 PM Pacific Standard Time, dogsrbest@_____ writes:
hello dr. bill, i enjoy [] very much. i think you are brave to use the name 'dr. bill' reminds me of that cartoon...ohh noo mr bill...[smile]. i am hard of hearing and mostly consider myself Deaf. i was not allowed to learn sign as a kid. i was about 23 maybe when i started to learn sign. no one in my family signs though i really wish they would learn to because it is much easier to communicate...i guess they just like yelling and repeating things till they become totally frustrated. i have a five year granddaughter who is learning signs in her kindergarden class and also from me. it is so neat to see her sign! and she's a natural little actress so sometimes her signs are really dramatic and funny. when i started to learn sign and expressed an interest in meeting other Deaf people the hearing people who were in charge of the advocacy office for the deaf said i was not 'deaf' enough and that none of the deaf people would even want to talk to me!! i listened to that line of reasoning a long time before i met some folks and found out the advocate was full of it.
i lost my hearing due to a misdiagnosed mastoid infection when i was six and also to chronic ear infections. i am training my second hearing ear dog. thank you for []. i use it to help teach my grand daughter. she thinks it is pretty cool as well.  peace.......sue
Thanks for sharing your story.
I'm glad my website has been useful to you. That is neat about your granddaughter.
Take care,

Recently an event organizer contacted me and asked me to help provide student volunteers to interpret for a "Senior Rally" co-sponsored by the AARP at the California State Legislature.
Here is my response:

Dear _____,
Just as your group is lobbying for affordable prescription drugs and maintenance of healthcare programs--we of the Deaf Community are lobbying for the advancement of interpreting services. One such advance is recognition of interpreting as a professional career requiring appropriate training and deserving appropriate pay.
Would you advocate that seniors routinely receive healthcare from unpaid student volunteers? Why then use such an approach toward filling the communication needs of Deaf people?
I encourage you to secure funding for qualified, professional interpreters.
I also encourage you to contact a professional interpreting agency for this and all of your future interpreting needs.
(A Privately-Owned Small Business Serving the Greater Sacramento Area and Northern California) Contact Person: Kim Eaton, email: Phone: 916-721-3636
Fax: 916-722-8377
William Vicars, Ed.D.
Asst. Professor, American Sign Language
California State University, Sacramento

In a message dated 3/13/2005 7:36:30 PM Pacific Standard Time, scubadvr0404@ writes:
Hi Bill,
Couple of questions..... what does it mean when both "S" hands are held out in front of shoulders, palms in, & then move outward & change into open hands?    2nd one.....right "A" hand, palm in, rubs left shoulder? 
That first sign might be "odor emitted from underarms."  Or it might be "MANY" signed using an exaggerated movement.
That second sign is a toughie.  It might be ambulance or maybe a name sign.  I don't see many "A" on the shoulder signs.

A student just mentioned that he heard ASL was quickly being replaced by Cued Speech.
He wanted to do a research paper on that topic.
I thought it was an excellent topic and suggested some angles to consider:
Will deafness someday be cured?
Will ASL continue to be used in the future?  If so, why?
A couple of possible (off-beat, but interesting) reasons:
ASL can be used to communicate with animals.
ASL can be used to communicate with babies.
So, even if doctor's cure deafness, ASL still has uses that can't be met be traditional spoken languages and or cued speech systems.
I know of no research showing ASL being surpassed in new users by Cued Speech.
Nor have I seen any indication of a growth in of Cued Speech with animals or by babies.
Since you asked me, I'll give you my personal option that the idea of Cued Speech replacing ASL is simply ridiculous.
--Dr. Vicars

In a message dated 3/31/2005 4:59:13 PM Pacific Standard Time, kazragir@ writes:
Dear Dr. Vicars;

May I call you Bill?  Anyway, I am Deaf and native ASL user, also a teacher at NY State School f/t Deaf in Rome and an (evening) ASL adjunct at Onondaga Community College in Syracuse.  The college has been expanding the online course program rapidly for the majority of "commutering" students.  My dept.chair has asked me to explore the possiblity of developing an online course on ASL.  I have problems with this idea for a number of reasons...obviously one is ASL itself is visually can technology help remove this such barrier and all that?  After surfing in your ASL University website briefly, you seem to be making it possible to do so.  When did you first begin offering this such online course?  Any pluses and minuses found in this new approach so far??  I am real curious before taking a dive.  Hey, is there any possibility for you to let me take a peek at your online curriculum in order to get an idea of what it might look like?   Does it cover ASL I-IV? 
Many thanks for your time, patience and understanding.  Looking forward to your answers, I am...

Roman Kazragis  (college)  (home)

Please include both addresses above when replying, thank you!
Yes, call me Bill.
Pluses are:
+ Strong receptive vocabulary development and receptive skills.
+ Asynchronous teaching/learning (teacher and student don't have to be in the same place at the same time).
hmmm...I can see that answering your questions here would turn into a dissertation...oh wait, I DID one of those on this topic.
You can download a copy of my dissertation at:
There you will find in-depth answers to your questions.
After reading through it, if you have additional questions, feel free to email me.
My online curriculum currently consists of levels 1 and 2. You can check out the prototype at The official college-credit version is hosted via a password protected Macromedia Breeze environment. 
I feel levels 3 and 4 should be either in-person or preferably hybrid courses.  I am currently directing a level 3 and 4 hybrid online/immersion program for Sac State (CSUS). The students do much of the work online and then come to Sac State for two weeks of boot-camp style ASL instruction and conversation (9 hours per day) and live in the dorms.  The 3 instructors are deaf.  Students must keep their voices off for two-weeks.  They receive 8 credit hours.  I've got 13 students registered for that program so far.   :) 
Check out: I can accept a few more people into that program.

William Vicars, Ed.D.
CSUS Sacramento
Department of Special Education, Rehabilitation, and School Psychology
6000 J St. - Eureka Hall, Room 308
Sacramento, CA 95819-6079

In a message dated 3/18/2005 9:00:10 AM Pacific Standard Time, jackee writes:
Do you recommend mirror practice?  What suggestions do you have for someone to improve their sign skills when they don't have anyone to practice with.  Thanks Jackee
While mirror practice is not as effective as one-on-one practice with a living partner--it is still better than no practice at all.  I think it is good to see how your hands are moving so you can compare your signs with the video.
If you have no one to practice with, you will simply need to find ways to make practicing alone meaningful to you.
For example, perhaps you have a favorite song, poem, or inspirational message that you might want to translate into ASL.  That way you will enjoy the practice because it has meaning for you.

> In a message dated 3/18/2005 1:14:31 PM Pacific
> Standard Time, 
> willowbard writes:
Dear Dr.  Vicars, I'm looking for suggestions/advice from anyone who has useful  ideas! I've been an interpreter and tutor for nearly 20 years, and have  just begun (we've met for a total of two hours) working with a person in  his mid-twenties who is deaf.  The parents are hearing, mother speaks  English as a 2nd language. Father says, "I don't sign. Teach the kid to  communicate."  I was hired to teach 'sign language'. The deaf  person seems eager to learn, can sign a LITTLE. There is apparent D.D.,  or L.D., but it is VERY difficult to tell how much (if any??) because of  the lack of language. The person tries to copy-sign and voices a lot.  There is definitely some hearing present, but not enough to understand  words clearly.  The deaf person is "well-trained" or "well-disciplined",  because the father totally squashed any "acting-out" at an early age, and  so EVERYTHING I say, do, sign, show, tell, is met with a super-agreeable  smile and nod.  I was told that tests from several years ago place this  person at about the age of 2 1/2 years old.  Some written letters are  recognized, some ASL letters are, too. Some pictures are met with an  excited sign (airplane, cookie), but no understanding of a red airplane  being different from a blue airplane. No ability to write, or even trace  letters. No simple math skills. Basically no ability to understand  simple instructions, although will DO anything I ask, in order to please  me.  This person seems to have no sense of "self". I can't do what  has been done before, let them mimic whatever I sign, and call it  communication. I believe something wonderful can happen here, but I don't  want to waste this person's time. Do you, or does anyone, have  suggestions? Are there books? Anything? Thank you for your  time. Sincerely, L. Murphy.
> L.
> I received your email and the two books I recommend
> are:
> Knight, P., & Swanwick, R. (1999). The care and education of a deaf  child a book for parents (Parents' and teachers' guides: Parents' and  teachers' guides No. no. 4). Clevedon, England, Buffalo: Multilingual  Matters.
> and
> Schirmer, B. R. (1994). Language and literacy development in children  who are deaf. New York, Toronto, New York: Merrill.
> Maxwell Macmillan  Canada. > Maxwell Macmillan International.

> --Bill V.

In a message dated 4/17/2005 10:46:27 A.M. Pacific Daylight Time, willowbard writes:
Thank you for the information.

I hope I didn't somehow offend you...You are usually quite chatty in your responses to people, and, honestly, while my letter had to sound stiff - no names, etc.- it was more an eruption of distress and fury at the situation than a request for books to solve something that can't be solved.  Anyway, I didn't write to you in order to take advantage of you, or "use" you for information. I only wrote after meeting my client and seeing that so MUCH could have been taught all those important years, but wasn't, because "We don't have time". I spent days poring over every book I could find in the library, searching the internet, talking with every teacher and interpreter I know who might have given me any crumb of help -- and finally decided to come to you, thinking that you would understand. I know "the drill", but I will NEVER understand how people can do this to their own children. That's why I wrote to you.  I'm sorry if I was out of line, or somehow inappropriate.

Lynne Murphy.
Hello Lynne,
Oh heavens didn't offend me in any way.  The shortness of my earlier reply was only due to the fact that there are not enough hours in the day.  At times it literally becomes a matter of choosing between sleep, eating, seeing my wife and kids, or answering emails from people on the net. I figured a short response would be better than no response. In your email you asked "are there books?"  So I responded by suggesting a couple of books that I felt were appropriate.  Much of the gist of your letter seems to ask, "How it is that parents can choose to be so uninvolved with their own child?"
The fact is that life is just too busy for many people. Every minute I spend typing emails on this computer is one less minute I can spend helping my own children with their homework.  So, occasionally I end up, as I did with you earlier, giving a brief answer so I will have enough time to do the important things in my life.  As you know or will is a balancing act.
Even now I'm IM'ing (messaging) my wife who is in Sacramento while I'm in Portland awaiting my flight back home after having given a workshop to the NorthWest Association of ASL teachers.
Now, regarding your earlier letter--perhaps what you could really benefit from is a discussion group where you could ask those same questions and bounce your concerns off of a number of informed individuals in a sharing, supportive environment.
You might consider joining an online discussion group.  I looked around for you and came across the ASCD group.  That's American Society for Children who are Deaf. 
The web address is I'm sure there are others out there as well.  Since you will likely be in this business for a while, it would certainly be worth your time to find one or two groups that meet your needs and to which you could share your own reflections with others as well.
Take care,


Thank you for your reply. I do understand the terrible brevity of time...  
My question, whether directed towards you, or the universe, is not necessarily about how parents can be so busy, but how anyone who is healthy, wealthy, well-educated, reasonably intelligent, etc., can watch their own deaf child become an adult right in front of them, wait a quarter of a century, then say, "Well, I guess I'll allow my child to learn language, as long as the government pays for it, but don't get me involved, because I'm not interested."   

It's not 'time', or lack of it, that I find so abhorrent in this and similar situations. It is being told that the father wants the child to learn language "Because I'm tired of saying 'Take out the garbage' or 'Get me some coffee' and not being understood".  This human being is put into my hands to learn language so that the father can have a better servant. There is not one word expressed about the wants or needs or rights of this (deaf) PERSON.  

What kind of a social system do we live under, that this is even legal? Aren't those who can't speak for themselves supposed to be protected from exploitation and evil?  I'm sorry. This stuff really gets to me.   Thank you again for your reply. I will get in touch with the group you mentioned, and go from there. By the way, oddly enough, I live in Portland. Small world, hmmm...  I hope you have a safe trip home. Hug your family :) Thanks again.

Take care,
       Lynne M.      


In a message dated 3/22/2005 10:42:56 AM Pacific Standard Time, shemcafee@ writes:
Hi Dr. Vicars,
I have taken ASL 1 & 2 through a community college and very interested in teaching signs to my baby. I have done some research online about people who teach I sometimes see "Certified" and have looked at a few programs that certify teachers. Is teaching signs to babies regulated and what makes being certified better than buying a book and teaching my baby myself or for that matter other peoples babies? Curious - Sheila
Great question!  Being certified simply means that "someone" said that "someone" else has achieved "some" level of proficiency.
So, is that better than NO certification?  I reckon that it is better, yes, but it doesn't necessarily mean you are getting a great teacher.  Maybe you are only getting a poor teacher who barely passed his or her certification test.
Many excellent teachers have no certification.
Teaching signs to parents of babies for pay is generally not regulated.  It doesn't fall under most occupational licensing programs because the teachers are not claiming to prepare anyone for employment.
It is indeed better to have a live instructor if you have the time and money.
But "how much" better depends on the skills of the individual instructor.
Good luck,
Dr. V

In a message dated 3/23/2005 9:16:36 AM Pacific Standard Time, ybrown@ writes:
Dear Bill,
I have an almost 3 year old who is having trouble speaking.  We do not believe that she will not be a speaking child, but she is having trouble right now with something called Apraxia.  Anyhow, we've decided to teach her some sign language to allow her to communicate with more than a one word sentence (and not one that is clear at that).  We have been directed to your website which has been helpful in getting started with some basic signs.  We come from the south and have our children use manners in everything that they do -- including saying 'Yes ma'am' and 'yes sir'.  We've taught all of our children these words at a very young age.  Since my child understands that she is to say this -- but can't say it correctly so that others understand, we would like to give her the sign for 'ma'am' and 'sir'.  However, I am unable to locate the signs for these words.  Are there signs for these words or are manners just simply implied when saying 'yes' and 'no'?  If you can help me with this, it would be greatly appreciated.
Thank you so very much.
Dear Yvette,
There are no well-established ASL signs for "ma'am" or "sir."
Politeness and manners in ASL are expressed via "non-manual" markers (facial expression, body posture, head-tilt) and inflection (size, speed, movement path) of the sign.
In your circumstance I would recommend you ask a local Deaf person to assign name signs to your family members and then you could teach your child to sign "yes ____" --using the name sign.
Or you could use the signs "MOM" and "DAD" for "ma'am" and "sir" for when she is talking to you and her father.
One more approach might be to sign "YES WOMAN" and "YES MAN" using the "MOM-FINE" and the "DAD-FINE" versions of woman and man.
However, I again wish to point out that this is not standard in the Deaf community.

In a message dated 4/2/2005 6:08:44 PM Pacific Standard Time, ANGELGURL1765 writes:
My name is Roshonya Cordero. I'm currently a senior at a magnet school for education. After high school, I plan to major in Deaf edcuation.As a result, decided to get ahead start and learn sign language. I recently bought a set of Cds  entitled Instant Immersion American Sign Language. I was working on the signs for diffent family members and when was practicing aunt, I noticed it was differnt from the sign I learned for your site. I would like to know what the difference is and which is more proper. The sign for aunt on my cd is the right hand in an "A" postion where the thumb traces the jawline. Thank you very much for your help
                            Roshonya Cordero
The sign for Aunt can either bounce or twist an "A" handshape off to the side of the cheek.
If you "slide the thumb down the jawline you are doing the sign for girl/female.
Visit your library and check out a few ASL'll see what I mean.
--Dr. Bill

In a message dated 4/12/2005 9:24:13 AM Pacific Daylight Time, dmshorty22@ writes:
Online study can help
Your library can help
In-person ASL courses can be a huge help.
You need to get involved with the deaf community.
You should not teach ASL until you have invested considerable time interacting with a variety Deaf people.
Eventually, you may want to become certified.  I recommend you check out
Dr. Bill

In a message dated 4/11/2005 7:58:03 PM Pacific Daylight Time, gbrotherton@ writes:
Dr. Vicars,

The sign for "cereal" in Lesson 7, you demonstrate using the index finger to x hand shape across the mouth a few times, but the ASL browser from Michigan State University uses a gesture of eating from a bowl.

Should I be concerned about the different variations?


-Gene Brotherton, Jr.
Port Orange, FL.
The answer is simple:  I'm right and they are wrong.  Heh.  Just kidding.
Thanks for including the link.  I took a look at it and the model is doing an initialized "C" version of "soup."    The "eating from a bowl" sign can be modified to mean "soup"-("U" handshape), RICE-("R" handshape), or --less common-- CEREAL-("C"handshape).
You can even modify "SOUP" to mean "SPOON" by sort of dropping the "bowl" at the end of the sign and holding the "U" handshape up a moment longer.  You can modify SOUP to mean "eat soup" by using a larger, slower movement.
You shouldn't be overly concerned about such variations.  Only dweebs, purists, ASL instructors, or um people from Florida give a fig about it. Skilled Deaf signers will recognize both variations.
Obviously there are regional variations, but the initialized version of "cereal" (eating from a bowl) with a "C" is not something that I'd teach to one of my ASL classes.
Personally my main concern is if "cereal" is being eaten...did I get an invite and can I have the prize from the box?
Take care,
Dr. Bill

In a message dated 4/22/2005 3:49:37 PM Pacific Daylight Time, enadale@ writes:
Dear Dr. how are you-
My name is Endale Asefa from Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia. I am an MSc student of Information Science. By now I am working on my thesis in title"A Hypermedia Learning Tool for Ethiopian Sign Language". My aim is to create a prototype of hypermedia learning software for hearing people around health centers like hospitals. To do this I need to identify users need by questionaires. This is mainly to identify the specific signs of Ethiopian Sign Lnguage that deaf people can use when served by hospitals. Note that the main aim of this research is to minimise communication gap between hearing and deaf people and helping the deaf in the mentioned area. Now my question to you is can you send me or tell me a site to get an already tested  material (questionaire) that can help me in assesing communication gap and user needs please? I am asking you this becuse my advisor has told me that it is a must to have an already tested material. If not I may not be allowed to do this research. For your information there is no IT project regarding Ethiopian Sign Language up to now. I am starting it and I do have great plan to continue simillar researches on the area in the future. I hope you will help me a lot. Thank you in advance


I recommend this book: Emmorey, K., Lane, H. L., Bellugi, U., & Klima, E. S. (2000). The signs of language revisited an anthology to honor Ursula Bellugi and Edward Klima. Mahwah, N.J Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
In it you will find various ASL research projects some including examples of testing instruments designed to gather Lexicostatistical data for signed languages.
Also, check out:
Dr. Bill

Sent: Monday, April 25, 2005 6:12 PM
Subject: education credential question
I asked a colleague the following question:
<<What education credential is necessary in California to teach in a deaf/hard of hearing classroom in grades K-12?  Where in California would a person get that credential?  (Which college or program.)>>
My colleague gave me the following information and I figured I'd pass it along for those of you who are interested in this topic.  Note: While I believe this information to be accurate, you should always verify details before making life-changing decisions.
<<To teach in D/HH programs, a student must earn a Master's degree (it can be in Deaf Education, but doesn't have to be, although if one does not hold a Master's in Deaf Ed, you would likely be required to take extra coursework in order to receive the credential) and complete additional coursework towards earning the credential (which would be included in the Master's coursework).  There are several programs in Calif. that I know of -- SFSU, SJSU, CSU-Fresno, CSUN, and one or both of the San Diego colleges.  Specific info on contacting the programs is in the Amer. Annals of the Deaf April reference issue every year, along with a listing of all the colleges in Calif (and the country/Canada) that offer teacher training (and other types) programs.  Once they have completed the coursework, they may apply for a DHH credential, which is split into two levels, the second of which is contingent on work experience and (I think) a little more coursework. 
I have heard good things about CSUN and at least one of the San Diego programs, and I think Fresno is all right.
________ (name on file)>>

Sac State may be hiring an ASL Instructor to begin August 2006.
Here is an example of the
"hiring criteria (draft)"
1.  Degree attained (Ph.D. preferred)

2.  Teaching ability

3.  Teaching Experience (3+ years preferred)

4.  Experience/knowledge of different ASL curricula

5.  Experience/knowledge of Deaf Culture and Community

6.  Knowledge of and Experience with ASL (including its linguistic structure and contrasts with English)

7.  Experience with diversity in student population

8.  Current state of knowledge of ASL instruction and Deaf Studies-related information

In a message dated 5/8/2005 1:00:27 A.M. Pacific Daylight Time, dijanajonjic@ writes:
I want ti say thank you for helping me to learn sign, I am from Croatia and want to learn to speak sign, so that I can communicate with other people, who is hard hearing.
So thank you again.
You are welcome.
Bill Vicars



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